Climate change and human health
Human-induced climate change – now deemed by international climate
science to be real, demonstrably underway, and apparently accelerating –
reflects the mounting pressures of human numbers and intensified economic
activity. The existence, and long-term prospect, of risks to human health
provides an important signal as to the profound nature of this extraordinary
phenomenon. This important “signal”, adequately documented and clarified
by health researchers, will reinforce the motivation of governments and their
constituencies to take rapid and radical mitigation actions.
The health risks arise variously from direct stresses (e.g. weather disasters
and heatwaves), altered ecological processes (e.g. changes in infectious
disease patterns, impaired food yields), resource conflict over depleted
resources (water, fertile land, fisheries, etc.) and population displacement.
Low-income and geographically vulnerable populations are at greatest risk.
The risks to health jeopardise the achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals. Those risks will increase over time, and afflict future
While nations strive to reduce emissions, health-protecting adaptive
strategies are needed, both for current risks and as part of longer-term
planning. Health sector adaptation initiatives should be part of a coordinated
multi-sectoral response that recognizes that protecting human health must
be a central goal of, and reason for, climate stabilization and sustainability.
Indeed, in the agenda-setting 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change, damage to “health and wellbeing” is one of the three categories of
adverse effects that the Convention is intended to address, along with
damage to the natural environment and economic development.
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Climate change and human health
The world climate is changing. The question wich we do every day is “Why is it happening?”
Most scientists say that the cause is human activities that induce greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse and global warming are the most worrying problems for our planet Earth. The high emission of greenhouse gases leads to a remarkable climate change.
After several studies, the experts concluded that the increase of typhoons and cyclones is caused by a warming of the oceans in recent decades. Most devastating hurricanes have occurred after 1900 causing many deaths. Evidences of this are many in recent year:
10 tropical cyclones in Japan in year 2004,
cyclones Gafilo in Madagascar,
cyclones larry in Australia,
cyclones Saomi in China,
a lot of seasonal tropical cyclones in the Atlantic between 2004 and 2005, including Hurricane Katrina which caused catastrophic consequences socio-economic status.
In Italy changing climate is also evident. Earthquakes occur more frequently in the last 20 years than before. We must remember the eartquakes in Sicilia in december 1990 (force magnitude 7), in Umbria in september 1997 (force magnitude 5), in Molise in october 2002 (force magnitude 5), and one in Abruzzo in april 2009 (force magnitude 6). Although deaths are decreased, an earthquake remains a really scary phenomenon for people. In addition to earthquakes, floods have increased in Italy (they there have also been recently). The climate in Italy is changing really quickly: the winter is more hot than past years and mid-seasons are disappearing.
Humanity should reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Countries that emit more greenhouse gases are North American (many gases are emit by USA) and Asia (the majority is emit by China), next follow Europe.
In Italy greenhouse gas emission is caused by transport and industry for the majority.
NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has a great video and other resources that help us understand how coral reefs aren’t just another pretty ecosystem. They’re also “storehouses of genetic resources with vast potential for medicines.” We need to keep them healthy to keep ourselves healthy.
Some examples of ways that the health of humans and coral reefs intersect are:
anti-inflammatory agent gorgonian coral (genus Pseudoterigorgia)
anti-tuberculosis agent gorgonian coral (genus Pseudoterigorgia)
orthopedic implants coral skeleton
anti-viral drugs sponge (Cryptotethya crypta)
anti-malarial agent sponge (genus Cymbastela)
anti-cancer drug sponge (genus Jaspis)
anti-cancer drug tunicate (Ecteinacidia turbinata)
anti-cancer drug bryozoan (Bugula neritina)
anti-cancer drug seahare (Dolabella auricularia)
Coral Reefs are depleting in result of careless human interaction. The largest problem is that people are destroying reefs by bottom trawling. This scraps the ocean floor and destroys many habitats for other organisms. Also, pollution is a large issue. The most common is oil spills and carelessness of trash dumping.
Coral Reefs are dying off due to human activities such as: oil spills, bottom trawling, and blasting of harbors. It is truly a spectacle and the more coral reefs die off, the more fish will die off because there shelter is destroyed. The more we use natural resources the more we kill the resources overuse is possible.