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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mario Zolt, Nov. 22, 2011

Statistics is the study of data analysis; there are two kinds of statistics descriptive and inferential. Graphs and charts, averages, dispersion of data, probability and its distributions etc.

At this link you can find some good article about statistics.

http://www.emathzone.com/tutorials/basic-statistics
Mario Zolt
Comments (1)
  • Andrew Castillo Andrew Castillo Nov. 22, 2011
    Perusing the site, I take issue with the claim (under Limitations of Statistics) that “Statistical methods are best applicable on quantitative data.” The use of dummy variables in regression analysis is common and as far as I know their use doesn't make the regression model any less applicable.

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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mauro De Giorgi, Nov. 21, 2011

Human life is full of decisions, including significant choices about what to believe. Although everyone prefers to believe what is true, we often disagree with each other about what that is in particular instances… [read the full article]

http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/index.htm
Mauro De Giorgi
Comments (10)
  • abeer alhamzawi abeer alhamzawi Nov. 23, 2011
    no , its doesn't mean that is not possible but it mean its not fact
  • Mario Zolt Mario Zolt Nov. 23, 2011
    We don't know if it's a fact or not, the only thing that we know for sure is that we don't know, because nobody know what is inside a star.
  • srini n srini n Dec. 9, 2011
    What is posted above makes for interesting reading! I am neither a logician. statistician or a philosopher. Just a curious layman. But what I recollect as having read some 20 yrs ago or more (cant remember the book title) is truth is independent of proof and acknowledgement. Like if it had rained in a Brazilian forest at 8 am today, it happens to be a truthful fact whether anyone was there to notice it or record it. The distinction between fact and truth was made in the book I read but presently I am not able to recollect what it was. But what i do recall is fact is considered a limited context sensitive reality whereas truth is something which transcends time and space. I wish I cd recall more or cite the source but I am sorry my memory fails me (as it does quite often!)
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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mauro De Giorgi, Nov. 21, 2011

If you wanna have some fun, try some of this puzzles :)

http://www.puzzles.com/projects/logicproblems.html
Mauro De Giorgi
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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mauro De Giorgi, Nov. 12, 2011

A classic masterpiece of Douglas Hofstadter, that discuss about self reference and paradoxs. A great book for everyone.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gödel,_Escher,_Bach
Mauro De Giorgi
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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mario Zolt, Oct. 31, 2011

Logical Reasoning

Logical reasoning is the process which uses arguments, statements, premises and axioms to define weather a statement is true or false, resulting in a logical or illogical reasoning. In today’s logical reasoning three different types of reasoning can be distinguished, known as deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning and abductive reasoning based on respectively deduction, induction and abduction.

http://www.fibonicci.com/logical-reasoning/
Mario Zolt
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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mario Zolt, Oct. 30, 2011

Free eBook - Simply Logical

Foreword by Bob Kowalski
For many reasons it is a pleasure for me to recommend this book. I am especially pleased, in particular, because it relieves me of the temptation to write a revised edition of my own book, Logic for Problem Solving. Similarly to my own book, this book aims to introduce the reader to a number of topics — logic, Artificial Intelligence and computer programming — that are usually treated as distinct subjects elsewhere. Not only does this book succeed in its aim, but it goes further than my own book by showing how to implement the theory in runnable Prolog programs. Both the theory and the programs are presented incrementally in a style which is both pedagogically sound and, perhaps even more importantly, teaches the reader by example how new ideas and their implementations can be developed by means of successive refinement.

http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/~flach/SimplyLogical.html
Mario Zolt
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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mario Zolt, Oct. 10, 2011

What is a logical fallacy?

All arguments have the same basic structure: A therefore B. They begin with one or more premises (A), which is a fact or assumption upon which the argument is based. They then apply a logical principle (therefore) to arrive at a conclusion (B). An example of a logical principle is that of equivalence. For example, if you begin with the premises that A=B and B=C, you can apply the logical principle of equivalence to conclude that A=C. A logical fallacy is a false or incorrect logical principle. An argument that is based upon a logical fallacy is therefore not valid. It is important to note that if the logic of an argument is valid then the conclusion must also be valid, which means that if the premises are all true then the conclusion must also be true. Valid logic applied to one or more false premises, however, leads to an invalid argument. Also, if an argument is not valid the conclusion may, by chance, still be true.

For a more thorough discussion of logical fallacies and how to structure a logical argument, see the New England Skeptical Society’s article, How To Argue.

http://www.theskepticsguide.org/resources/logicalfallacies.aspx
Mario Zolt
Comments (1)
  • D Okamura D Okamura Oct. 19, 2011
    Mario, this is a good resource on logical fallacies, not just for symbolic logic, but for language students who are learning how to construct sound arguments in essays. After all, essay comes from the French word for attempt (to convince) and the Latin for (to weigh).

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Discussions Discussion Logic and Statistics Explained
Mario Zolt, Oct. 7, 2011

World’s shortest explanation of Gödel’s theorem

http://blog.plover.com/math/Gdl-Smullyan.html
Mario Zolt
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